Vitruvius Translator – and the missing source text

Sokratis Georgiadis

MA HCT & PhD Debates: History in Translation. Marina Lathouri and Guest Speakers

Thursday 12 March | 4:00pm | 32 Bedford Square (First Floor Back)

In portraying the architecture of the temples, which make up the contents of Books 3 and 4 of Vitruvius’ “Ten Books on Architecture” and can be considered the core of this work, its author makes no secret of his dependence on Greece. But which were his sources? In the preface to his 7th book, he himself gives the names of more than 20 Greek architects who have written about their art before him; these writings, the oldest of which date back to the 6th century BC, are all lost today. Which of them he knew and used and to what extent we do not know. Nor is it likely that the Roman theorist and author of the “Ten Books” knew first-hand the architecture of which he wrote, not even the Greek architecture of southern Italy and Sicily. The source text Vitruviusʼ, is therefore not secure and this is a problem for his theory, but above all for its reception, i.e. the more than two-thousand-year-old tradition of European Vitruvianism.

Image: Delphi ex-Cnidienne. Photography by Sokratis Georgiadis


Graf, Fritz, “Pompai in Greece – Some Considerations about Space and Ritual in the Greek Polis,” in: Robin Hägg (ed.). The Role of Religion in the Early Greek Polis, Stockholm 1996. 55-65.

Biography: Sokratis Georgiadis, born in 1949 in Thessaloniki (GR), studied architecture at the Technical University of Berlin and received his PhD from the University of Stuttgart. In the years 1987-1994 he held a research and teaching position at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), he also held temporary teaching posts at the Universities of Zurich and Bern. In 1994 he became Professor for Architectural Theory and Design at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Berlin-Weissensee and, shortly after, Professor of Architecture and Design History at the State Academy of Art and Design Stuttgart where he taught until 2018. He lectured widely in Europe and North America, wrote articles for numerous architectural magazines and organized architectural exhibitions. His research interests include architectural history and theory in the 19th and 20th centuries and, more recently, Greek architecture of the archaic period. His studies on Sigfried Giedion include book publications (An Intellectual Biography 1989 [engl.1993], The Project of a New Tradition [co-editor of the exhibition catalogue, Museum für Gestaltung Zürich, 1989 / German], Introduction to Giedions’s “Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete” in the Text & Documents Series of the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, Epilogue to the German reprint of the same book [2000]) and numerous articles. He is presently working on the edition of the papers of Giedion’s unfinished book-project “Die Entstehung des heutigen Menschen” (1929-1938, The Growth of Contemporary Man).

Empathy and the Phenomenological Ethnography of Space

Tao DuFour

MA HCT & PhD Debates: History in Translation. Marina Lathouri and Guest Speakers

Thursday 30 January | 4:00pm | 32 Bedford Square (First Floor Back)

This lecture will address the Debates’ theme of history ‘in-translation’ in terms of an inquiry into three interrelated phenomena: empathycorporeity, and spatiality. We will draw primarily on contemporary scholarship on the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein on empathy (Einfühlung), and Jan Patočka and Maurice Merleau-Ponty on embodiment, in dialogue with the architectural theory of the late Dalibor Vesely. Beginning with this initial sketch of the philosophical problems, we consider concretely the question of the sense perceptual and empathic basis of the experience of the historical horizon of an ‘Other’s’ world, in terms of the expressive and communicative structures of corporeity and spatiality. The concrete, exemplary event that will guide our inquiry is a ritual practice of an Afro-Brazilian religion—called a Candomblé caboclo reunião of Tupikinim—situated in the periphery of the city of Salvador in the Brazilian Northeast. Our access to the ritual will be primarily through ethnographic descriptions of its spatiality, and thus implicated in our considerations is the question of the status of ethnography as a method and descriptive practice. Following the critiques of philosopher Valentin Mudimbe, we will foreground the ethical implications of the hermeneutic sense of empathy (Einfühlung) for ethnography. Mudimbe’s empathic thesis derived from hermeneutics, I propose, bears a certain affinity with anthropologist

Marilyn Strathern’s methodological grounding of ethnography in the concrete conditions of fieldwork and its ‘effects’. We will thus explore the question of the status of spatiality for ethnography in Strathern in relation to Mudimbe’s critique of ethnography’s historicity. The problems raised through a consideration of the above phenomenological and anthropological relations will guide us in investigating the tensions in the understandings of the relationship between historicity and spatiality for the shared, embodied experience of the ritual as exemplary, and its more general implications.

Image: Caboclo figurine on the ritual table. Salvador 2010. Photography by Tao DuFour


Marilyn Strathern, “The Ethnographic Effect I”, in Property, Substance and Effect: Anthropological Essays on Persons and Things (London: The Athlone Press, 1999), pp.1-26.

Klaus Held, “Husserl’s Phenomenology of the Life-World”, in The New Husserl: A Critical Reader, edited by DonnWelton (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2003), pp.32-62.

Dermot Moran, “Edith Stein’s Encounter with Edmund Husserl and Her Phenomenology of the Person”, in Empathy, Sociality, and Personhood: Essays on Edith Stein’s Phenomenological Investigations, edited by Elisa Magrì and Dermot Moran (Dordrecht: Springer, 2017), pp.31-47.

Tao DuFour, “Toward a Somatology of Landscape: Anthropological Multinaturalism and the ‘Natural’ World”, in Routledge Research Companion to Landscape Architecture, edited by Ellan Braae and Henriette Steiner (London: Routledge, 2019), pp.156-170.

Valentin Mudimbe, “The Patience of Philosophy”, in The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988), pp.135-186.

Biography: Tao DuFour is Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture at Cornell University. His work explores the overlaps between architecture, anthropology, and philosophy, building on his research on the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. His current research is concerned with the question of architecture’s embeddedness in environmental histories. He holds a PhD and MPhil in the history and philosophy of architecture from the University of Cambridge, and a BArch from The Cooper Union. He is the author of Husserl and Spatiality: Toward a Phenomenological Ethnography of Space (Routledge, forthcoming 2020).

The Female Body Politic: Re-modelling The Book of the City of Ladies

Penelope Haralambidou

MA HCT & PhD Debates: History in Translation. Marina Lathouri and Guest Speakers

Thursday 13 February | 4:00pm | 32 Bedford Square (First Floor Back)

The paper will present my practice/drawing-led research, which focuses on two works by French late medieval author Christine de Pizan: The Book of the City of Ladies, 1405; and The Book of the Body Politic, c.1404-07.
Conflating the act of writing a book – a thesis against institutional misogyny – with the construction of an imaginary city, the first work, The Book of the City of Ladies, has been seen as a proto-feminist manifesto. Although widely studied in terms of its literary significance, I focus on the under-researched architectural and urban allegory depicted in the text, which imagines a Utopia inhabited solely by women and constructed for them by a woman (de Pizan herself), as well as its accompanying illuminations (miniature illustrations) displaying three different stages of the foundation and physical construction of the city. Inspired by Aristotle’s Politics and revisiting the ancient Greek metaphor, by which a state or society and its institutions are conceived of as a biological human body, in the second work, The Book of the Body Politic, de Pizan offers her version of a medieval political theory, which I attempt to connect with her allegorical city.

Image: Photograph by Andy Keate


Penelope Haralambidou (2016). ‘With-drawing Room on Vellum: The Persistent Vanishing of the Architectural Drawing Surface’. In Allen, L., Pearson L. (Eds.). Drawing Futures: Speculations for Contemporary Art and Architecture (pp.82–89). London UCL Press

Sandra L. Hindman. ‘With Ink and Mortar. Christine de Pizan’s Cite des Dames’. In: Feminist Studies, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 457-483

Earl Jeffrey Richards. ‘Where are the men in Christine de Pizan’s City of Ladies. Architectural and Allegorical Structures in Christine de Pizan’s Livre de la Cite des Dames.

Biography: Penelope Haralambidou is Associate Professor and Director of Communications at the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. She coordinates MArch PG24, where she promotes a highly innovative research-based teaching methodology that uses digital film and immersive environments to re-think architectural design through time. Her research employs architectural drawing, model-making and digital film as investigatory tools to analyse ideas and work, not only in architecture, but also visual representation, the politics of vision, art and cinema. Her work has been exhibited internationally, she is the author of the monograph Marcel Duchamp and the Architecture of Desire (London: Routledge, 2013), and she has contributed writing on themes, such as architectural representation, allegory, figural theory, stereoscopy and film to a wide range of publications. Her solo show, ‘City of Ladies’, presenting her practice-led research of Christine de Pizan’s proto- feminist text The Book of the City of Ladies, 1405, was hosted by DomoBaal gallery in January–February 2020.

Animals, Architecture, and the Critique of Modernity

Kostas Tsiambaos

MA HCT & PhD Debates: History in Translation. Marina Lathouri and Guest Speakers

Thursday 30 January | 4:00pm | 32 Bedford Square (First Floor Back)

Although the representations of animals in architecture since 1900 receded, as positivism and functionalism prevailed, one can still notice various representations of animals in the work of modern and postmodern architects. From the goat in Hans Poelzig’s Porzellanpavillon (1922), and the pack-donkey in Le Corbusier’s The City of Tomorrow (1929), to the horse in Superstudio’s Atti Fondamentali (1972), and the dog in Lina Bo Bardi’s Intermezzo per bambini (1984) the animal, as a symbolic representation, comes to serve a critical-interpretive function. In my talk, I will focus on a few case studies in which the animal comes to question the form and content of architecture by pointing towards a meta-architectural future.

ImageMassimo Scolari, The Solitary Sparrow, 1974


Spyros Papapetros, The Birth of Design

Boris Groys, Romantic Bureaucracy: Alexander Kojeve’s post-historical wisdom (in: Radical Philosophy 196, March/April 2016)

Efthymia Rentzou, Animal (Columbia University Press, 2016)

Biography: Kostas Tsiambaos is Assistant Professor in History & Theory of Architecture at the School of Architecture of the National Technical University in Athens (NTUA). He is Chair of Greece. He studied in Athens (NTUA) and New York (GSAPP Columbia University). His research has been published in international journals (The Journal of ArchitectureARQArchitectural Histories, AΡΕΝΑ JAR) and international collective volumes. His recent books include From Doxiadis’ Theory to Pikionis’ Work: Reflections of Antiquity in Modern Architecture (London & New York: Routledge, 2018) and Ambivalent Modernity: 9+1 texts on Modern Architecture in Greece (Thessaloniki: Epikentro, 2017 – in Greek). He has also co-edited the exhibition catalogue The Future as a Project: Doxiadis in Skopje (Athens: Hellenic Institute of Architecture, 2018). In the fall semester of the academic year 2019-2020, he was a Stanley J. Seeger Visiting Fellow at Princeton University.

Geo-aesthetics of the Anthropocene

Eray Cayli

MA HCT & PhD Debates: History in Translation. Marina Lathouri and Guest Speakers

Thursday 23 January | 4:00pm | 32 Bedford Square (First Floor Back)

This seminar will explore aesthetics as central to the various issues debated today under the rubric of the Anthropocene. It will do so especially by attending to the ways in which the environment is aestheticised as part of political projects and by asking how these aestheticisations in turn engender, encourage and legitimise particular environmental interventions. In terms of its critical analytical objectives, the seminar aims to complicate flattening notions of humanity and universality that continue to characterise mainstream approaches to the Anthropocene in architecture and related disciplines.

ImageView of a Coal Seam on the Island of Labuan (engraved by L.C. Heath & lithographed by C.W. Giles, 1847)


Dilip da Cunha, The Invention of Rivers: Alexander’s Eye and Ganga’s Descent (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019)

Kathryn Yusoff, A Billion Black Anthropocenes or None (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2018)

Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002)

Biography: Eray Cayli, PhD (University College London, 2015), studies the aesthetics and geographies of political violence in Turkey anthropologically. His current research concerns with how these legacies shape and are shaped by contemporary discourses and practices around disaster and resilience. Eray is Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellow (2018-21) at London School of Economics and Political Science where he also teaches the postgraduate course ‘Imaging Violence, Imagining Europe’. He is currently completing a monograph tentatively titled Victims of Commemoration: The Architecture and Violence of ‘Confronting the Past’ in Turkey, co-editing the volume Architectures of Emergency in Turkey: Heritage, Displacement, Catastrophe, and guest-editing a special issue of the International Journal of Islamic Architecture themed ‘Field as Archive / Archive as Field’. Eray is a co-founder of Amed Urban Workshop, an independent academy for critical spatial research based in the city of Amed (officially known as Diyarbakır) in Turkey’s Kurdistan, where he also undertook a residency at the artist-run space Loading in summer 2019.

The Ecological Superblock

Aiman Tabony
Supervisors: Michael Weinstock, George Jeronomidis

The rapid undergoing and coming climatic and ecological change coupled with rapid acceleration in population growth, raise doubts and concerns regarding the ability of the existing urban systems to adapt to the future change. Although, these changes represent key opportunity for using ecological based design superblocks. The research departs from a critical reflection on the work of Hilberseimer’s “Decentralized City “and Soleri’s “Arcology”, who considered the city and the superblock to be a single and unified ecological system. It contextualizes the research within the larger scope leading the focus to the investi- gation of ecology and its subfield, the ecosystem. This brings the study down to three dominant areas of research: ecology, computational ecology and urban design. Through the integration of System Dynamic modelling method in the design process, the research investigates the Implantation of ecological parameters coupled with morphological and metabolic parameter and process. The design methodology is proved by the development of a computational design model which integrates System Dynamics model And Evolutionary Design model. The model was examined through a set of design experiments of a superblock that is integrated with the flow of the dynamics of the climate and ecologi- cal system. The output of the design method is a multi-dimensional da- tascape, opening up new possibilities in the field of urban design and planning that are more robust to changes in the environmental context. 

Biography: Aiman Tabony is a researcher and the second generation architect in Dr Tabony Architects. An architecture and engineering office founded in Nazareth in the 1960s by his father. During the last two decades, Aiman has been the leading architectural agenda of the practice, building an extensive curriculum in the design of public buildings. From 2012 to 2013 Aiman was teaching in the Technion-Haifa, as member of the computational design group. Aiman moved to London in 2014 to continue developing his curriculum in architecture, computation and ecology as a PhD researcher at the Architectural Association in London. He develops his Thesis under the supervision of Dr. Michael Weinstock; founder and leader of the design research group Emergent Technologies EmTech at the Architectural Association, London. His research concentrates on the implementation of computational methods for design and fabrication of ecological architecture and urban design. Departing from the city understood as a dynamic complex system his work focuses on the development of dynamic system models for cities and how the development of these systems influences the architectural discourse at the scale of the urban block.


Lola Lozano Lara

Supervisors: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Maria Giudici

The thesis considers the notion of vicinity, observed within the historic and legislative context of housing in Mexico City. A vecindad in Mexico is a building typology that allows a group of households to share domestic facilities through a central street. Vecindad translates to neighbourhood, stemming from the Spanish vecino which in English means, both, neighbour and close, alluding to proximity, a relationship of close distance. 

The thesis is an investigation of domestic space and the relentless and unplanned accumulation of itself in the metropolitan city, focusing in Mexico City as a model of this condition, highlighting the state of living in extreme vicinity and raising the question of sharing what is perceived as a finite resource in the metropolitan city: housing. The existing housing stock in Mexico City does not satisfy the volume of the population. The number of inhabitants is a factor, and yet it is not the root of the problem. The crisis is engrained within a political system of reigning bureaucracy, resulting in a way of life where misfortune is inevitable and normalised.

The study looks closely at the architecture typologies in which inhabitants have been housed within the city, paying close attention to how these result in the redistribution of space and services through necessity and commodification, rather than through design. The investigation traces the history of Mexico as a newly sovereign state, autonomous since the consolidation of its first Constitution in 1821, and provides an understanding of its initial housing legislation and the instrumental reforms that will follow to enable its current ruthless and futile development of real estate. The research responds to the need of finding ways to contain the population in metropolitan areas of unlimited and unstoppable physical growth, where a perception of scarcity is promoted in relation to space, wealth, infrastructure, and time – in turn, fostering the image of an unsolvable problem and justifying the dissolution of a possibility for domestic space.

Biography: Lola is a practicing architect working in London and Mexico City. She graduated from the AA Diploma, having previously completed her Bachelor studies at Newcastle University. Alongside her architectural practice, Lola is enrolled as PhD Candidate at the AA and teaches at various UK universities. She is Associate Lecturer at Oxford Brookes University co-leading DS7 on the MArchD course; Visiting Lecturer at the University of Westminster MA Interior Architecture; and collaborates with the BA Technical Studies and Professional Practice courses at the Bartlett and the AA.

Language and Sound: The Oracle of Delphi

Dorette Panagiotopoulou

Supervisors: Mark Cousins, Doreen Bernath

The thesis explores the space between voice, speech and writing though a study on the oracle of Delphi, an oral culture that is then transcribed and codified into written text. The manifold life of sign and sound (of language itself) as well as that of the author and the receiver, are attached by the material they share: writing, a currency always in the throws of exchange. An ideology of writing and receiving, the relationship between sound, silence, and voice, is like all relations, about power. Does the voice have to submit to the written word? Was writing more like an act of re-writing or what we may call editing in the early period of the adoption of writing to speech, rather than a whole new way of representing language? The relationship of writer and receiver, sound and silence is one of domination but also – sometimes – one of commonality. 

Within the study of oracular statements and inscriptions at the temple of Delphi, I am developing a central question which concerns the tension between the narratives which describe it as an utterance by the Pythia and the oracle’s appearance, circulation, and dissemination in textual form – the tension here being between the spoken and the written word. The question of the oracle’s dissemination is a crucial one, as it presents a form of language or rather a cultural phenomenon that combines both literacy and orality. Even the Pythia’s language itself, emerges as neither deceptive nor crystalline, falling thus somewhere between the written and the illusory. There is one main concept that seems to link the two studies, specifically, inscription. The analysis of the letter “E” in Plutarch’s dialogue “On the E at Delphi”, leads to an understanding of inscription as something that acts as a lure or an invitation to investigate. The letter “E” takes the form of a pure symbol of judgment that evokes both the acts of interpretation and intuition in relation to truth. The Delphic inscription, mediated by Plutarch, has become a classic instance of the problem of interpretation. Not unlike oracular formulations that neither conceal nor reveal but indicate, inscription appears as both formal and hermeneutic. It entails the ability to say and to represent at the same time, while revealing the division or even blurring the lines that separate sign, form, and word. The very thing that is both seen and read is muted in the vision, and concealed in the reading. Thus, inscription bears a “not yet to say” and a “no longer to represent” that leads to the search for that force that produces a full meaning – one beyond the grasp of the linguistic – that utters the unspeakable through the “space” of emptiness and silence. 

Image: Juxtaposition of film still and the Temple of Apollo (Tacita Dean: Landscape, Portrait, Still Life, RA)

Biography: Dorette Panagiotopoulou has obtained a Masters degree in Cultural and Intellectual History at the Warburg Institute after having completed her Undergraduate Studies at the AA, from which she graduated in 2013 from Diploma unit 14. She is currently undertaking a PhD that examines the subject of the Delphic Oracle, under the supervision of Mark Cousins and Doreen Bernath, while teaching in the AA History and Theory Studies courses as a seminar tutor. She has previously worked at Hopkins Architects in London, as well as in the Re-Activate Athens project – a research and design initiative led by Urban-Think Tank studio based at ETH in Zürich in collaboration with the Onassis Foundation in Athens. She has also briefly worked on the report “Rafah: Black Friday” at Forensic Architecture based at Goldsmiths University. She is currently collaborating with a of group professors and architects from the Polytechnic School of Athens (NTUA) on a large project aimed to be realized in 2021 in Eleusis.

Towards Jerusalem: The Architecture of Pilgrimage

Gili Merin

Supervisors: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Maria Giudici

The thesis explores the ritual of sacred travel to the city of Jerusalem. It studies pilgrimage as a project in which the pilgrim, as a subject who is led by spiritual orientation, contributes to the appropriation of the cities and landscapes that he or she is perpetually crossing. While pilgrimage is indeed acknowledged as a journey in pursuit of a religious objective, it will nevertheless be studied, in this thesis, as a powerful social and cultural vector that often destabilized the economic, civic, and political conditions of the places of worship. The thesis will expand the definition of pilgrimage to Jerusalem by including a variety of analogous ‘Jerusalems’ that proliferated around the world as pilgrimage sites in their own right. As such, it will place the ritual of travel to the City of Jerusalem as a flexible practice that is not geographically confined but could be enacted by the varied combination of text, place, memory, and visual imagination—arguing for the possibility of relief from territorial confinement, and the violence it conceals. 

The thesis will unfold both chronologically and thematically in order to explore how the mentality of pilgrims and the scenography of pilgrimage has produced particular structures, landscapes, and representations that I refer to as the Architecture of Pilgrimage. Each of the five chapters looks both into a specific era in the history of Jerusalem pilgrimage (early Christianity, the Middle Ages, the beginning of Modernity and the 20th Century), as well as a particular theme, such as the fabrication of sacred landscapes, the intelligence of analogical thinking, the importance of movement in ritual, the politics of heritage and preservation, and the formation of collective memory. While these paradigmatic ideas did not necessarily originate in Jerusalem, the city’s condition allows their examination in a state of acceleration and saturation.

Methodologically, the thesis uses photography as a tool for architectural research and design, producing a travelogue composed of photographs and text. As documentation, this project will provide primary evidence of the current condition of Jerusalem pilgrimage. As representation, it will join a lineage of past endeavours that has used the medium of photography to frame spaces as a tool of architectural design. As a series, the images will unfold along the itinerary of the thesis and form cartography of pilgrimage. As a project, it will trace, define, and speculate on a possible new route Towards Jerusalem.

Image: Stations of the Cross in the Sacred Mountain of Varese, Italy. Photo by Gili Merin, 2018

Biography: Gili Merin is an architect and photographer She is a Diploma unit master at the AA, a lecturer for History and Theory of architecture at the Royal College of Arts, and a visiting professor in Syracuse University. She was trained as an architect, editor and researcher at OMA in Rotterdam, Kuehn Malvezzi in Berlin and Efrat-Kowalsky in Tel Aviv. Gili writes and photographs regularly for the Architects’ Journal, Frame Magazine and Haaretz newspaper. Her essays and reportages have been published in a number of print and online journals, amongst them the AA Files, MITs Thresholds, The Guardian and The Architectural Review.

The social factory: Social movements from autonomy to precarity

Enrica Mannelli

Supervisors: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Maria Giudici

The thesis studies the evolution of the “social factory” and the related social movements that tackled this evolution. The concept of the social factory rises from a theory developed by Mario Tronti in early 1960 who claimed that in a Fordist society “the whole of society lives as a function of the factory and the factory extends its exclusive domination to the whole of society”. Therefore, the history of the social factory is the evolution of an exploitative system, marked and challenged by a series of struggles led by the working class, the subject exploited. From an urban perspective, the Fordist social factory is the first moment that every single element of the city (such as factories, housing projects, and parks) and urban activity (working, dwelling, and leisure) is commodified and planned according to the main production system in order to fulfil the main goal of reproducing the labour force, i.e. making people productive. The urban history of the social factory – which this thesis sets out to trace – is the evolution of the city structure in relation to the evolution of the system. 

In the last 60 years, the working world has moved from a production system based on the factory assembly line to the contemporary “creative factory” that exploits not only intellectual labour but also the workers’ life as such; from zoning policies to a condition where we are unable to mark the spatial boundaries of the work field. As an illustration of this shift in the nature of work, Italy represents an exemplary and fast-paced case study while at the same time, Italian thinkers and practitioners of the 1960s and 1970s produced extensive theoretical and political contributions on this precise topic. Among them, the rejection of the system expressed by the Italian theories of autonomy and the Autonomia movement is the most interesting. 

Therefore, this research will analyse the structure of several Italian cities in relation to a particular shift within the evolution of the system: Turin, the factory; Bologna, the creative city; Rome, the autonomous social centre; and Milan, the cooptation of the autonomous social centre. In doing so, it questions the urban form in two ways: as an outcome of the capitalist system, reading urban planning as a means of capitalism itself; and as a contested spatiality in which the struggles of workers and citizens occur. Ultimately, this project questions the opportunity to tackle the contemporary Roman social factory through an urban policy to enable a system of social factory workshops. The latter is imagined as a critique of the Centro Sociale Occupato Autogestito (Self-managed occupied social centre; CSOA) that represent an important moment and space within the evolution of Italian theories of autonomy, and an opportunity to challenge the relentless nature of capitalism.

Image: Tano D’Amico, Girl and Guards, Rome (1977)

Biography: Enrica Mannelli is an architect. She graduated in Architecture in Rome (2008) and holds a Master of Arts in Housing and Urbanism from the Architectural Association (2017). As a firm believer in the importance of acquiring hands-on experience alongside academic study, she worked in a number of firms of different sizes, methods, and ambitions: among them, she collaborated with Cino Zucchi Architetti in Milan and Lynch Architects in London. She is currently working between Rome and London while pursuing her PhD by Design.